What makes everything we can see. What is real structure of Atom. Today we will learn about progress in its structure.
Evolution of Atom
Ancient Greeks and Indian philosophers knew that Everything is made of something small repeating unit. John Dalton proposed first modern atomic theory. Dalton’s Theory states that Everything is made of small atoms which are indivisible. Different Atoms are having different properties.
Plum Pudding Model of Thomson
J.J. Thomson proved Dalton’s idea of indivisibility wrong. In 1897 he discovered electron. Dalton’s theory does not mentions about Existence of electrons. After discovering an electron Thomson proposed plum pudding model.
He thought there must be positive charge to balance the electrons. In order to prove atom is electrically stable he assumed that it is having same positive charge. His model states that positive charge is distributed symmetrically in whole atom.
Now, Rutherford comes in the picture
Conclusion of Rutherford
Rutherford fired alpha particles on the very small layer of gold foil(layer was in order of nm). Alpha particles are positively charged about 2e. At the centre alpha particles were deflected. Some thing positive charged is concentrated around nano meters.
Idea of Electron Cloud
Neils Bohr introduced idea of electron cloud. He compared atomic model with planetary system. When electrons get energy they gets into higher energy states.
Schrödinger’s equations comes with quantum idea of atom. Schrödinger equation shows probability of electron clouds.
How Atom is Made
Atom is made of Fundamental Particles which are electron, neutron and proton. This fundamental Particles are made of Quarks. Bosons Makes quarks.
Bosons are most fundamental particles involved in construction of atom. There are many theory on structure availabe. But bosons are proved by experiment. We will discuss at more fundamental level in my next articles if you guys want…
Update, Here is the next article