Quantum computers have been a topic of interest for a long period of time now. However, the size of transistors is decreasing rapidly year by year. It implies that we can gather and store more and more memory in a very small space. We can store that memory even in the size of our fingernails.
QUANTUM COMPUTERS OVER CLASSICAL COMPUTERS:
As the size of any modern transistor approaches to that of an atom, classical mechanics seizes to work. Anything less than the size of an atom falls in the quantum realm. So, using quantum mechanics, scientists and tech-companies are trying to develop quantum computers. Quantum computers can perform certain calculations in seconds or minutes that our classical computers would have, otherwise, taken years to complete.
THE PRINCIPLE OF QUANTUM COMPUTERS:
Quantum computers work on the principle of quantum superposition. Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum physics. The statement goes like this: any two quantum states can be summed up. And the result, we get, will be another quantum state. We can also call this “addition” superposition as the states are getting superposed.
For instance, let’s consider the case of classical computers. The memory is stored in bits. They are 0 and 1. When you are switching the fan on, the result will be 1. But when you are switching it off, the result will be. That’s it. There are only two possible results; either on or off. Either 0 or 1. There is 100% probability that the result will be either 1 or 0. If it is 0, the probability of 1 becomes zero.
But this is not the case for quantum computers. They work on something, scientists call, “qubits”. Qubits are superposed states of 0 and 1. That means until we know the outcome, 0 and 1 will be in a superposed state. Both exist at the same time. This is almost the same situation as Schrödinger’s cat experiment. You can check our article on that topic here SCHRÖDINGER’S CAT: AN ABSURD THOUGHT EXPERIMENT
But once you observe the outcome, the result will be either 1 or 0. The information about all the previous superposed states will be lost at that moment. We call this “wave function collapse”. Check this video out for more clarification https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHMJCUmq28
ADVANTAGES OF QUANTUM TECHNOLOGY:
They are capable of solving computational problems such as integer factorization. However, they can do them a lot faster than their classical counterparts. They will help a lot in cryptography. As a result, they can provide high security to web pages, emails, bank data etc.
A lot of government and private sectors are investing billions of dollars to develop quantum computers. As a result, it’s just a matter of time before the world will see a whole new generation of quantum technology. YouTube video here for quantum computers
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